Team C Nursing Research Timeline 1951-1980
University of Phoenix
Contributions made by Michelle Esco RN, BSN., Kathy Mulhern RN, BSN, Melissa Rackard RN, BSN, and Cheryl Wright RN, BSN.
NUR 518

1952 The First Issue of Nursing Research was Published
Research articles have become a staple in nursing research and providing best care practices to patients. Bringing evidence based practices to institutions around the world is what the nursing research journal has been able to accomplish since its first issue was published in 1952. The journal has become a guide for nurses and other healthcare professionals to use scientific evidence to support their clinical practices. This resources is more than a research tool, it provides education and critical thinking skills and leads the way for many advances in the healthcare field. With the advances in technology this journal is now available as an online resources which opens many more doors for nursing research. Nursing Research Online

1955 The Historical Development of the Nursing Process
The term Nursing Process was first used in 1955 by Lydia Hall, a nursing theorist. This framework has become used throughout the world to describe the "nursing role". These steps also become important when discussing research. Most nursing research studies follow a similar if not the same framework, which is as follows: Assess, Nursing Diagnosis, Expected Outcomes, Plan, Implementation, and Evaluate.
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Lydia Hall




1955-The Nursing Research Grants and Fellowship Programs were established by the U.S. Public Health Service.
The purpose of the program was to support nursing investigations and research training in nursing. $200,000 was distributed between 1947 and 1955. The results of this research included cost analysis and evaluations of nursing research services and programs. The nursing research grant created a way for nurses to investigate concerns and improve quality of care provided. In 1957 the Division of Nursing resources became responsible for selecting approved applicants, prior to this date the Public Health Study Section was responsible for selecting approved applicants. The program determined deadlines and applicant requirements for research studies. The program established what sources of information could be released and what information was released. 1952 Approved Grants Apply today for a grant.

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1955-American Nurses Foundation
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Many developments in nursing in the 1950s laid the foundation for nursing research. In 1955 the American Nurses Foundation was established as a center for research. The American Nurses Foundation supports research in nursing by issuing grants for studies that contribute toward the advancement of nursing and improvement in patient care by promoting, broadening, and disseminating the findings of the study. Without these research opportunities, it would be difficult for the effectiveness and quality of care that nurses provide to continuously improve. The research that has been made possible by the American Nurses Foundation is necessary to prove which practices are effective because without it nursing practice would not be based on substantial evidence.
ANF's website










1957-Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing (WCHEN) was established
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The Executive Committee of the Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education (WICHE) approved a study of nursing in the western region in 1955 as an effort to develop a curriculum for a graduate program which resulted in the creation of the Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing (WCHEN). In 1957 the Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing (WCHEN) was established and met to discuss securing federal funding to support conferences on nursing research. By 1971, the council had launched the first Communicating Nursing Research conference and strengthened their presence by establishing a regional program for nursing research development. The Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing (WCHEN) is significant to the nursing profession because this organization funded numerous research projects and publications which allowed nurse researchers to test their ideas and strengthen evidence-based practice in nursing which ultimately led to improved patient care.




1968- ANA published The Nurse in Research: ANA Guidelines on Ethical Values
The ethical guidelines set the ground work for nursing requirements involving research. These guidelines inform nurses, medical professionals, and the public about nursing expectations involving research. The nurse takes on the position as the investigator or the nurse practitioner providing controlled care. As the investigator the nurse will have completed the required education to conduct the research. The guidelines were created to protect human rights. The guidelines include the right to privacy, self-determination, conservation of personal resources, freedom from arbitrary hurt, freedom from intrinsic risk of injury, and minor and incompetent persons. The development of these ethical guidelines resulted in the use of informed consent, this informed the participants about the right they would be surrender during the study. Code of Ethics



The ANA continues to offer professional opportunities for nursing.

1973- The American Hospital Association (AHA) issued the Patient's Bill of Rights
In 1973, the American Hospital Association published the Patient’s Bill of Rights which established the rights of patients while they are in a hospital setting. Included in this Bill of Rights is the right to refuse to participate in any research study. The Patient Bill of Rights was developed to ensure that the patient was making an informed decision about his medical treatment and participation in research studies. The American Hospital Association set standards that established a patient’s right to have research studies completely explained to them prior to making a decision to participate in research studies that may affect their medical care or require their direct involvement. Because of the standards that the American Hospital Association set nearly 40 years ago, patients have the right to choose not to participate in research studies without compromising the nursing care that they receive.
AHA's website


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1976 The Commission on Nursing Research of the ANA recommended that research preparation be included in nursing education
What a milestone for nursing research! To have research incorporated into nursing education really changed the way nurses viewed research and how they used it to improve practice and patient care once they graduated from these enhanced programs. Students need the education to think critically and bring evidenced based practice into their nursing careers. There has to be evidence to support clinical practice. With the incorporation of research classes these skills can be taught to nursing students, and then brought into nursing practice. In the beginning of these recommendations, research was implemented in curriculum only for nurses receiving bachelors or masters degrees. There are now more and more undergraduate and ADN programs utilizing research into their programs.
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1978 Advances in Nursing Science
Peggy Chinn, RN, founded Advances in Nursing Science (ANS) in 1978, as a peer-reviewed journal providing contributions to the development of research findings to the nursing practice. This is one of the most read journals by facilities of doctoral programs in nursing. Each issue of ANS features a timely research topic which has a major impact on the nursing profession and nursing care. This journal contributes to the development of nursing science, and promotes emerging nursing theories, and research. Advances in Nursing Science
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References
Advances in Nursing Science (ANS). (2011). History of ANS. http://www.journals.lww.com.

American Nurses Foundation. (2011). History of ANF. Retrieved from http://www.anfonline.org/HomeCategory/AboutANF/History/default.aspx

Halcomb, E.J., & Peters, K. (2009, August). Nursing student feedback on undergraduate research education: implications for teaching and learning. Contemporary Nurse, 33 (1), 59-68.

Heitkemper, M., & McNeil, P. (2001). Perfect marriage of two pioneers. Nursing Research, 50 (4), 194. Retrieved from __http://www.nursingcenter.com/library/JournalArticle.asp?Article_ID=429976__

Murphy, S. (1993, Summer). Nursing research journals: A discussion and annotated guide. Serials Review , 19 (2), 23.

Taylor, C., Lillis, C., Lynn, P., & LeMone, P. (2008). Fundamentals of nursing (6th ed.). Philadelphia , PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. The nurse in research. (1968, July). The American Journal of Nursing , 68 (7), 1504-1507 . Retrieved from [[http://www.jstor.org/stable/3420902 ]]

Vreeland, E.M. (1958, December). The nursing research grant and fellowship program of the public health service. The American Journal of Nursing, 58 (12), 1700-1702 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3417806





Team C Nursing Research Timeline 1951-1980